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Concepts

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Concepts / Textual relevance / Typo-Tolerance
01 Jul 2018

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Typo-tolerance is extremely important in modern search experiences for two reasons. First of all, with more and more usage occurring on mobile devices, typos are inevitable. Furthermore, for products with increasingly global userbases, not everyone will know the exact right way to spell a word — typo-tolerance is a powerful tool to support this growth.

Algolia provides robust typo-tolerance out-of-the-box, along with easy ways to customize just how tolerant a search experience should be.

Algolia’s typo-tolerance algorithm is based on distance - the minimum number of operations (character additions, deletions, substitutions, or transpositions) required to change one word into another. This is known as the Damerau–Levenshtein distance.

distance

Below are a few examples of how Algolia counts the operations needed to transform a word.

We are transforming the words of a query not to correct their spelling. We are doing this, instead, as part of the search itself: for example, if a word is found as-typed (that is, with no transformation), its typo count = 0. If, on the other hand, the engine finds the word only after applying one or more operations, then each operation costs 1. Ultimately, as described below, the typo count impacts ranking.

Additionally, keep in mind:

two typos

Typo count is the very first criterion considered in Algolia’s default ranking formula. Because Algolia uses a tie-breaking algorithm to determine ranking, this means that records containing exact query matches are considered more relevant than any others, regardless of other ranking criteria. See how typos impact ranking .

We recommend the Ranking Formula’s default configuration for the vast majority of use cases.

In addition to typos, Algolia handles splitting and concatenation — the insertion or removal of spaces or punctuation between two words. This way, “entert ainment” will match with “entertainment”, and “jamesbrown” will match with “James Brown.”

These splits and concatenations are not considered typos, and they only work when there are no other typing mistakes.

Splitting and concatenation will only be performed when matching whole words , not prefixes. This means that “entert ainm” will not match “entertainment”, and that “jamesbro” will not match “james brown.”

whole words
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Neurosurgical Conditions and Treatments Spinal Infections

Spinal infections can be classified by the anatomical location involved: the vertebral column , intervertebral disc space, the spinal canal and adjacent soft tissues. Infection may be caused by bacteria or fungal organisms, and can occur after surgery. Most postoperative infections occur between three days and three months post surgery.

vertebral column intervertebral disc spinal canal

Vertebral osteomyelitis is the most common form of vertebral infection. It can develop from direct open spinal trauma, infections in surrounding areas and from bacteria that spreads to a vertebra.

Vertebral osteomyelitis

Intervertebral disc space infections involve the space between adjacent vertebrae. Disc space infections can be divided into three subcategories: adult hematogenous (spontaneous), childhood (discitis) and postoperative.

Spinal canal infections include spinal epidural abscess , which is an infection that develops in the space around the dura (the tissue that surrounds the spinal cord and nerve root). Subdural abscess is far rarer and affects the potential space between the dura and arachnoid (the thin membrane of the spinal cord, between the dura mater and pia mater). Infections within the spinal cord parenchyma (primary tissue) are called intramedullary abscesses.

spinal epidural abscess

Adjacent soft-tissue infections include cervical and thoracic paraspinal lesions and lumbar psoas muscle abscesses. Soft-tissue infections generally affect younger patients and are not seen often in older people.

Incidence and Prevalence

Risk factors for developing spinal infection include conditions that compromise the immune system, such as:

Surgical risk factors include an operation of long duration, high blood loss, use of instrumentation and multiple or revision surgeries at the same site. Infections occur in 1 to 4 percent of surgical cases, despite numerous preventative measures that are followed.

Causes

Spinal infections can be caused by either a bacterial or a fungal infection in another part of the body that has been carried into the spine through the bloodstream. The most common source of spinal infections is a bacterium called Staphylococcus aureus , followed by Escherichia coli .

File sharing

Public groups Get a short link for your group and make it public, like t.me/publictestgroup . This way, anybody can view the group's entire chat history and join to post messages.

Public groups

Customization via bots Create custom tools for any specific needs using our Bot API and Inline Bots .

Customization via bots

Telegram groups are ideal for sharing stuff with friends and family or collaboration in small teams, they can have up to 200 members and by default everyone can add new people and edit the name and group photo.

groups

If your group grows to a very large community, you can upgrade it into a more centralized supergroup . Supergroups can have up to 100,000 members and have a unified history, so deleted messages will always disappear for everyone. You can also pin important messages to the top of the screen so that all members can see them, including those who have just joined.

supergroup

Channels are a tool for broadcasting public messages to large audiences. In fact, a channel can have an unlimited number of subscribers. When you post in a channel, the message is signed with the channel's name and photo and not your own.

Channels

Read more about channels in the Channels FAQ »

iOS: Start a new message (tap the icon in the top right corner in Chats) > ‘New Group’. Android: Tap the circular pencil icon in the chats list > ‘New Group’. Telegram Desktop: Click the menu button in the top left corner > ‘New Group’.

To upgrade one of your groups to a supergroup:

iOS: Go to the group info page > ‘Edit’ in the top right corner > scroll down to the ‘Convert to Supergroup’ button. Android: Go to the group info page > tap “…” in the top right corner > choose ‘Convert to Supergroup’. Telegram Desktop: When in the group, click “…” in the top right corner > ‘Manage group’ > ‘Convert to Supergroup’.

Telegram groups are democratic by design. Everyone can invite new members and change the group‘s name and photo, which is ideal for small bands of friends or coworkers. For larger communities that need more administration, we’ve introduced a special restricted mode.

In the restricted mode, only administrators can add new people and change the name and photo of the group. Admins also have the power to remove other members from the group.

iOS: Go to Group Info (tap the photo in the top right corner on the group‘s chat screen) — Edit — Add Admins. Disable ’All Members Are Admins' and appoint admins from the list. Android: Go to Group Info (tap the name in the header) — … (in the top right corner) — Set Admins. Disable ‘All Members Are Admins’ and appoint admins from the list. Telegram Desktop: When in the group, click “…” in the top right corner > ‘Manage group’ > ‘Manage administrators’. Disable ‘All Members Are Admins’ and appoint people from the list.

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